About

The Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming (CERG) is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research institute that aims to study the etiological factors of addictive disorders and contribute to their effective prevention and treatment.
From a basic research perspective, the CERG strives to be sensitive to the identification of new challenges emerging in modern societies, as well as reflective in handling these problems.
While having a wider interest in understanding the mechanisms of the development and maintenance of addiction processes (both psychoactive substance use and behavioural addictions), the CERG is specifically focused on the study of gambling behaviour, video game use, and more generally on behaviours that are linked to recent technological developments.
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Publishing in Addiction Science PhD Summer School

The Publishing in Addiction Science PhD Summer School, organised by the Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming at the University of Gibraltar, is a comprehensive and intensive learning experience designed for PhD students pursuing a degree in addiction science. The programme aims to provide participants with the skills and knowledge needed to produce high-quality publications from their research results and successfully complete their PhD journey.
Further information on the next Summer School to be held between 30th June – 06th July 2024 is available here.
Find out about our previous summer school (held in July 2023) here.

9th International Conference on Behavioral Addictions

We are pleased to announce that the registration and abstract submission is now open for the 9th International Conference on Behavioral Addictions (ICBA), which will take place in Gibraltar on 8-9-10 July, 2024
Further information on the 9th International Conference on Behavioral Addictions is available here.

Our Team

Prof Zsolt Demetrovics
Chair
Dr Andrea Czakó
Research Manager
Petros Dimitriou
CERG Administration Officer
Dr Shu (Mogu) YU
Researcher
Dr Cristina Villalba García
Researcher
Dr Zsolt Horváth
Adjunct Associate Researcher

PhD Students

Judith Glynn
PhD Student
Harshdeep S. Mangat
PhD Student
Ronald Ngetich
PhD Student
Yanisha Soborun
PhD Student
Pedro Romero
PhD Student
Paul Bush
PhD Student
Julia Tibot
PhD Student

Research Interests

In addition to specific addiction-related research, the CERG more generally focuses on studying the nature and mechanisms of risks and on identifying the mechanisms of the development of harm related to these behaviours. When examining causes and mechanisms that may lead to harmful behaviour, the CERG considers harm (physical and mental) at the individual, familial and societal level. While examining potentially harmful behaviours, the CERG’s central goal is to identify risky ways of engagement in these behaviours and to understand factors that might differentiate between harmful and non-harmful forms of these behaviours.
To achieve its goals in terms of conducting prestigious multidisciplinary (i.e., psychogenetics, cognitive neuropsychology, personality and social psychology) research, the CERG is open to collaborate with other research institutes and to participate in the work of international scientific associations, societies and networks. In addition to basic and applied research efforts, the CERG also initiates and contributes to the development of educational programmes, training, and interventions that aim to reduce harm related to gambling and video game use. To achieve these goals, the CERG also seeks to collaborate with associations involving people who gamble or play video games and aims to provide input into the responsible gambling and gaming initiatives of operators. In all of these efforts, the CERG places special emphasis on identifying interventions that aim to reduce harm, studying the effectiveness of these interventions, and supporting evidence-based best practices.

Gambling and Gaming Related Publications

Understanding Esports-related Betting and Gambling: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Mangat, H. S., Griffiths, M. D., Yu, S. M., Felvinczi, K., Ngetich, R. K., Demetrovics, Z., & Czakó, A. (2023). Understanding Esports-related Betting and Gambling: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Journal of Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-023-10256-5

This review evaluated all English-language peer-reviewed empirical studies on esports betting. We found that esports bettors were more likely to be male, younger, and come from non-Caucasian ethnic backgrounds compared to their comparison groups (like sports bettors). We also found that esports bettors were likely to score higher on problematic gambling measures, compared to other types of gamblers, and non-gamblers. A positive relationship between esports spectatorship and esports betting was also evident in the results. The review shows that despite increasing research in esports-related gambling, there is much scope for more expansive research.

Profile of Treatment Seeking Gaming Disorder Patients: A Network Perspective.

Granero, G., Fernández-Aranda, F., Demetrovics, Z., Ayala-Rojas, R. E., Gómez-Peña, M., Moragas, L., Jiménez-Murcia, S., (2021). Profile of Treatment-Seeking Gaming Disorder Patients: a Network Perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10899-021-10079-2

This study explored the network structure of correlates of gaming disorder (sociodemographic, personality and other clinical measures) in treatment-seeking patients. The network analysis carried out in this study provided insight into the structure of the main contributing factors of gaming disorder. The central nodes in the network were global psychological distress, chronological age, and age of onset of gaming related problems.

Linkage analysis also identified psychopathological status and age as the variables with the most valuable information in the model. Identification of such variables can be useful for developing precise management plans to prevent and treat gaming disorder related problems.

Gambling in Canada During the COVID Lockdown: Prospective National Survey.

Shaw, C.A., Hodgins, D.C., Williams, R.J. et al. (2021). Gambling in Canada During the COVID Lockdown: Prospective National Survey. Journal of Gambling Studies (2021).

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10899-021-10073-8

This study aimed to investigate the extent to which the COVID pandemic lockdown influenced gambling and problem gambling in Canada. The re-surveying of AGRI National project’s online panel participants (n=3449) allowed for a quantitative comparison of gambling behaviours during the pandemic relative to six months prior. Findings showed that nearly one-third of gamblers ceased gambling completely during the lockdown. Whereas for those who continued, gambling decreased across nearly all engagements metrics including gambling frequency, time spent in gambling sessions, money spent, and the number of game types engaged in.

Over 17% of participants migrated from pre-pandemic land based gambling to online gambling during the lockdown. Further studies are required to assess if these changes herein remain stable or revert to pre-pandemic levels.

The moderating role of coping mechanisms and being an e-sport player between psychiatric symptoms and gaming disorder: Online survey.

Bányai, F., Zsila, Á., Kökönyei, G., Griffiths, M. D., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., (2021). The moderating role of coping mechanisms and being an e-sport player between psychiatric symptoms and gaming disorder: Online survey. JMIR Mental Health, 8(3):e21115  [https://mental.jmir.org/2021/3/e21115/PDF]

 

This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping strategies and type of videogame usage (i.e., professional/esport vs. recreational use) on the relationship between psychiatric symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and videogame addiction. The results showed that there is a moderately strong relation between psychiatric symptoms and videogame addiction and that neither coping strategies, nor the type of videogame usage have a considerable effect on this relation.

Autism, Problematic Internet Use, and Gaming Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Murray, A., Koronczai, B., Király, O., Griffiths, M. D., Mannion, A., Leader, G., Demetrovics, Z. (2021). Autism, Problematic Internet Use, and Gaming Disorder: A Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, in press [https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s40489-021-00243-0.pdf]

 

This literature review investigated the relationship between autism and problematic internet use and videogame addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, and 21 studies were identified examining this question. The majority of the studies found a weak or moderate relationship between internet addiction and autistic-like traits and a relationship with varying strength between internet addiction and clinically diagnosed Autism Spectrum Disorder. Additionally, individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder were more likely to exhibit symptoms of videogame addiction, however there is a lack of studies investigating the relationship between autistic-like traits and videogame addiction.

Online Gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder in Iran: Patterns, Motivations, and Correlates.

Rafiemanesh, H., Farnam, R., Rahimi, J., Hamzehzadeh, M., Ghani, K., Jobehdar, M. M., Amin-Esmaeili, M., Shadloo, B., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., Rahimi-Movaghar, A. (2021). Online Gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder in Iran: Patterns, Motivations, and Correlates. Current Psychology [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-021-02490-0]

 

The aim of this study was to assess patterns and motivations of online gaming, the symptomatology and prevalence of Gaming Disorder (GD) and its health implications, and the correlates of these phenomena in an Iranian population of online gamers. The study was carried out as part of a national survey collaboration with a cross-cultural study. The findings showed prevalence estimate of GD was 3.7% amongst the 791 participating gamers, and higher game time and GD was 9.4 times more prevalent amongst males. Additionally, time spent on gaming, younger age, using a PC rather than smartphones and “escape” and “fantasy” gaming motivations and psychiatric symptoms were associated with the GD as well. This study concludes that a small minority of Iranian online gamers may be at risk of pathological gaming and its associated harms, especially those of a young age who play long hours with “fantasy” related incentives.

Gambling Features and Monetization in Video Games Create Challenges for Young People, Families, and Clinicians.

Király, O., Zhang, J., Demetrovics, Z., & Browne, D. T. (2021). Gambling Features and Monetization in Video Games Creates Challenges for Young People, Families, and Clinicians. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, S089085672102044X.
[https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(21)02044-X/fulltext]

 

This article highlights how “loot boxes” (in-game consumable virtual items, that can be purchased with real money or obtained in games as a reward) may act as a gateway to problem gambling and in turn, the impact this may have on children from a developmental perspective, disruptions within families and barriers faced by paediatric clinicians. This study includes key areas of research that need to be considered to be able to facilitate effective prevention methods.

Psychometric properties of the nine-item Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire in a Brazilian general population sample.

Spritzer, D. T., Machado, W. D., Yates, M. B., Astolfi, W., Laskoski, P. B., Pessi, C. P., Laconi, S., Kaliszewska-Czeremska, K., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., Passos, I. C., Hauck, S. (2021). Psychometric properties of the nine-item Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire in a Brazilian general population sample. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12:660186 [https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.660186/full]

 

This study aimed to adapt and examine the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ-SF-9) in the framework of a multicentric project carried out in 16 countries investigating the cross-cultural aspects of problematic internet and smartphone use. The PIUQ-SF-9 is the short form of the original 18-item PIUQ developed by Demetrovics et al., 2008. It is a nine-item comprehensive screening tool assessing three basic areas of problematic internet use: obsession (i.e., preoccupation and withdrawal symptoms); neglect (i.e., negligence of everyday activities and basic needs); and control disorder (i.e., trouble in controlling internet use). The sample consisted of Brazilian Internet users between the ages of 18 and 89. According to the results the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PIUQ-SF-9 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument to be used in future studies on problematic internet use in Brazil.

Polysubstance Use Is Positively Associated with Gaming Disorder Symptom Severity: A Latent Class Analytical Study

Horváth, Z., Király, O., Demetrovics, Z., Németh, Á., Várnai, D., & Urbán, R. (2021). Polysubstance Use Is Positively Associated with Gaming Disorder Symptom Severity: A Latent Class Analytical Study. European Addiction Research, 1-11. [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34284387/]

 

The aim of the present study was to explore alcohol and illicit drug use classes among adolescents and how gaming disorder is associated with these. The final sample consisted of 2768 students (ninth and eleventh graders), with a mean age of 16.73 years. Four subgroups were identified: polysubstance users, high-risk alcohol users, moderate alcohol users, and infrequent substance users. Based on the results severe gaming disorder was associated with various drug use, which may be due to the intention to increase performance in the game. There may be common psychological mechanisms in the background (e.g., sensation-seeking tendencies), and shared neurobiological mechanisms may also explain the relationship. The level of alcohol consumption did not correlate with the severity of the symptoms of gaming disorder.

Development and validation of the Reward Deficiency Syndrome Questionnaire (RDSQ-29).

Kótyuk, E., Urbán, R., Hende, B., Richman, M., Magi, A., Király, O., Barta, C., Griffiths, M. D., Potenza, M. N., Badgaiyan, R. D., Blum, K., & Demetrovics, Z. (2022). Development and validation of the Reward Deficiency Syndrome Questionnaire (RDSQ-29). Journal of Psychopharmacology, 026988112110691. [IF: 4.153] [https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/02698811211069102]

 

This present study developed and validated a 29-item reward deficiency syndrome questionnaire (RSDQ-29) containing four subscales to assess psychological and behavioural characteristics that may contribute to addictions generally. Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) seems to have a crucial role in the development of addictive behaviours. While former studies described carefully the neurobiological and genetical background of the reward deficiency syndrome until now the psychological description of the phenomenon was not available. The currently developed scale fills this gap by providing a psychometrically sound instrument to assess RDS and its components.

Etiology of problem gambling in Canada.

Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. S., & Stevens, R. M. G. (2022). Etiology of problem gambling in Canada. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000843

 

A large-scale national cohort study has been conducted to identify the current etiological risk factors for problem gambling in Canada. A cohort of 10,119 Canadian gamblers completed a comprehensive self-administered online questionnaire in 2018 and were reassessed in 2019. The strongest multivariate predictors of current and future problem gambling were “gambling-related” variables, such as current and past problem gambling, intensive gambling involvement, playing electronic gambling machines, gambling fallacies, socializing with other people having gambling-related problems, and family history of having gambling-related problems. Beyond gambling-related variables, greater impulsivity and lower household income were robustly predictive.

A comprehensive model to understand and assess the motivational background of video game use: The Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI).

Király, O., Billieux, J., King, D. L., Urbán, R., Koncz, P., Polgár, E., & Demetrovics, Z. (2022). A comprehensive model to understand and assess the motivational background of video game use: The Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI). Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2022.00048

 

This study aimed to create a comprehensive motivation inventory applicable to any gaming genre and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a large sample of highly engaged video gamers. A sample of 14,740 video gamers were recruited via an online survey, and the findings showed that 26 gaming motives clustered into six higher-order dimensions (Mastery, Immersion/Escapism, Competition, Stimulation, Social, Habit/Boredom).  Gaming motives had moderate relationships with variables such as competitiveness, sociability, and positive and negative affect. Gaming disorder symptoms were directly predicted by depression symptoms and indirectly via immersion/escapism, habit/boredom, and competition motives. The authors conclude that the Gaming Motivation Inventory is a useful tool for gaining insights into factors underlying gaming behaviours.

Developmental and Family Implications of State Controlled Videogame Play in China.

Király, O., Browne, D., Demetrovics, Z. (2022). Developmental and Family Implications of State Controlled Videogame Play in China. JAMA Pediatrics, [IF: 16.193] https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.0322

Recently, China imposed laws limiting children younger than 18 to 1 hour of online gaming between 8 and 9 PM on Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, and public holidays. There are potential benefits and risks associated with state control of children’s video game play. These regulations have been welcomed by some, but there is evidence that video game play can have several benefits, including helping players master skills and be part of a community. The rules may also stigmatize an activity that is harmless for most people. From a family systems perspective, the regulations may externalize the problem of parent-child conflict over video game play outside the family, meaning parents and children now work together to find new ways to spend time. Alternatively, they could form a coalition against the regulation. The regulations could strengthen family relationships, but they may also inhibit the independent negotiation of media use within parent-child dyads, which is an important opportunity for families to work through challenging issues.

Adopting an affordability approach to responsible gambling and harm reduction: considerations for implementation in a North American context.

Nower, L., & Glynn, J. (2022). Adopting an affordability approach to responsible gambling and harm reduction: considerations for implementation in a North American context. Gaming law review, glr2.2022.0020. Https://doi.org/10.1089/glr2.2022.0020

The proliferation of gambling opportunities worldwide has generated concern over how to protect individuals and families from harm caused by excessive spending. In response, researchers and operators have worked with big data to develop models that identify indicators of problem gambling. Such models are generally proprietary, non-transparent, and non-generalizable across games, jurisdictions, or player populations, rendering them impractical as regulatory tools. In the UK and elsewhere, regulations have shifted to a model of shared responsibility that targets ‘affordability,’ the amount individual players can afford to lose. This approach avoids the need for regulators and operators to be clinicians, attempting to identify disorder. We discuss approaches to operationalizing affordability guidelines in a North American context – to promote the objective identification of players who are spending beyond their means and reduce related harm.

Gaming disorder: Current research directions.

Király, O., Potenza, M. N., & Demetrovics, Z. (2022). Gaming disorder: Current research directions. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 47, 101204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2022.101204

Gaming disorder (GD) is a condition that involves recurrent videogaming behaviour that leads to serious functional impairment in personal, social, family, occupational, and educational areas. GD is characterized by poor control, increasing priority given to gaming over other interests and activities, and continuation of gaming despite negative consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized GD as an official diagnosis, and research into this disorder is growing, resulting in new research directions.research directions are proposed The present narrative review covers important recent studies of GD between 2019 and 2021, and addresses topics such as  conceptualization, assessment, and prevalence; comparison of DSM-5 and ICD-11 frameworks; clinical studies; neurobiological studies; gambling elements in video games; and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on gaming and GD. : (conceptualization, assessment, and prevalence, (2) comparison of GD frameworks proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision, (3) clinical studies, (4) neurobiological studies, (5) gambling elements in video games, and (6) impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on gaming and GD. The authors discuss the most important findings and propose future directions of research.

Prevalence and predictors of illegal gambling in Canada.

Mackey-Simpkin, S., Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., & Russell, G. E. H. (2022). Prevalence and predictors of illegal gambling in Canada. International Gambling Studies, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2022.2149833

 This study investigated the prevalence of illegal gambling in Canada in 2018. The researchers conducted a survey of 10,199 Canadian adults as part of a larger national study on gambling. They found that the prevalence of illegal gambling was very low, with only 0.05% of respondents reporting using illegal betting shops or bookies, 0.07% patronizing illegal casinos or card rooms, 0.09% participating in illegal animal contests, and 1.59% engaging in illegal online gambling. The study identified several factors that were associated with an increased likelihood of participating in illegal gambling, including the presence of gambling problems, male gender, younger age, and engagement in a larger number of gambling formats. Overall, the study found that legal forms of gambling may have largely displaced illegal forms, but illegal gambling does continue to exist among certain groups, particularly those who are heavily involved in gambling.

Psychological predictors of the co-occurrence of problematic gaming, gambling, and social media use among adolescents.

Akbari, M., Bahadori, M. H., Khanbabaei, S., Milan, B. B., Horvath, Z., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). Psychological predictors of the co-occurrence of problematic gaming, gambling, and social media use among adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 140, 107589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2022.107589

This study aimed to identify psychosocial predictors associated with different co-occurrence patterns  of problematic gambling, problematic social media use and problematic gaming among adolescents. The study surveyed 2390 Iranian adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18, and found that four different latent classes emerged: a non-problematic behavior group, a group with problematic gambling, a group with problematic social media use and gaming disorder, and a group with disordered gambling and problematic social media use. The study found that different psychological risk factors were associated with these different groups, and that specialized prevention and treatment programs may be needed for adolescents who experience co-occurring addictive behaviors.

Gambling disorder duration and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome considering gambling preference and sex.

Lucas, I., Granero, R., Fernández-Aranda, F., Solé-Morata, N., Demetrovics, Z., Baenas, I., Gómez-Peña, M., Moragas, L., Mora-Maltas, B., Lara-Huallipe, M. L., & Jiménez-Murcia, S. (2023). Gambling disorder duration and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome considering gambling preference and sex. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 158, 341–349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.12.031

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of illness duration on the treatment outcome of different profiles of gambling disorder (GD) patients according to their gambling preference and sex. 1699 patients diagnosed with GD were analysed, all of whom received cognitive-behavioural therapy. Results showed that patients who presented a preference for strategic forms of gambling and women had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes since the first stages of the disorder. These results highlight the importance of early intervention in these specific patients to prevent the chronicity of the disorder.

Gaming disorder: A summary of its characteristics and aetiology

Király, O., Koncz, P., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). Gaming disorder: A summary of its characteristics and aetiology. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 122, 152376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2023.152376

 

The article provides a comprehensive review of the factors that can influence Gaming Disorder (GD) including gaming-related factors, individual factors, and environmental factors. Gaming-related factors such as structural characteristics, game design elements, and monetization techniques can increase player involvement and have an addictive potential. Online games have been found to be more prevalent in GD than offline games, likely because they provide safe environments for players to fulfil their social needs while remaining anonymous. Game genres such as massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), first-person/third person shooter (FPS/TPS) games, real-time strategy (RTS) games, and multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) games have higher addictive potential than others. Individual factors such as personality traits, depression and depressive symptoms, and gaming motivations have also been found to influence GD. Environmental factors such as parental monitoring and peer influences can either protect or increase the risk of developing GD.

Safer esports for players, spectators, and bettors: Issues, challenges, and policy recommendations

Czakó, A., Király, O., Koncz, P., Yu, S. M., Mangat, H. S., Glynn, J. A., Romero, P., Griffiths, M. D., Rumpf, H.-J., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). Safer esports for players, spectators, and bettors: Issues, challenges, and policy recommendations. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2023.00012

 

This paper provides an overview of the possible risks, harms, and challenges that might arise with the development of esports and the threats posed to professional esports players, spectators, bettors, and video game players, including underage players. Alongside the positive aspects of esports, there are several possible challenges, which should be considered, including negative consequences of a sedentary lifestyle, sleep disturbances, the risk of development of problematic gaming, exposure to age-inappropriate content, and esports-related gambling. The paper discusses possible responses and suggestions regarding how to address and mitigate these negative consequences. The need for cooperation and collaboration between various stakeholders such as researchers, policymakers, regulators, the gaming industry, esports organizations, healthcare and treatment providers, and educational institutes is emphasized.

The Potential Harm of Gambling Streams to Minors

Koncz, P., Demetrovics, Z., Griffiths, M. D., & Király, O. (2023). The Potential Harm of Gambling Streams to Minors. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, S0890856723000825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2023.01.020

 

The article discusses the convergence between video games and gambling and the risks that arise from it. The use of gambling-like elements in video games, as well as the financial benefits of gaming, are making it more similar to gambling. This convergence can put vulnerable individuals at risk, especially those who are impulsive and susceptible to persuasive design elements that are used in both gaming and gambling services. The article also highlights the growing popularity of gambling streams on platforms like Twitch and the potential for these streams to influence minors. Age restriction of access to gambling services is prevalent across Europe, with most countries setting the legal age for gambling at 18 years for land-based gambling activities. However, there are no such restrictions on gambling streams, making it easier for minors to access them. The article suggests the need for future research and policy making to explore this area and protect young consumers.

Innovative methods needed to understand links between gambling and self-harm

Demetrovics, Z., & Horváth, Z. (2023). Innovative methods needed to understand links between gambling and self-harm. The Lancet Public Health, 8(3), e168–e169. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00034-8

 

The article discusses the association between problem gambling and self-harm, including non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation and attempts. While some studies have examined the relationship between the two, few have focused on how changes in the levels of these constructs over time might affect each other. The article recommends adopting a more extensive longitudinal design, which would allow researchers to determine the bidirectional relationships more precisely and analyse the relationships between linear and non-linear change trajectories. The article also stresses the importance of considering and controlling for confounding variables that might influence the association between problem gambling and self-harm.

The concept of recovery in gaming disorder: A scoping review

Gavriel-Fried, B., Serry, M., Katz, D., Hidvégi, D., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O. (2023). The concept of recovery in gaming disorder: A scoping review. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 12(1), 26–52. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2023.00002

 

This review maps literature on recovery from gaming disorder (GD) (i.e., disordered use of video games), a recently identified mental disorder marked by uncontrollable and harmful gaming behaviours. GD is associated with younger males of lower socio-economic status and psychiatric conditions like depression, anxiety, and ADHD. Various treatments have been adapted from substance use disorder treatments, but the effectiveness and trajectory of these remain unclear. Recovery from GD is understood via two paradigms: the ‘deficit-based’ approach, focusing on symptom reduction, and the ‘strengths-based’ approach, emphasizing personal growth and overall well-being. The review suggests that an integrative approach combining these paradigms is more effective. However, the concept of recovery in relation to GD remains under-studied, likely due to the relative novelty of the disorder and ongoing debates about the nature of GD, its course, and risk factors. Future research should include a greater representation of female participants, given that women may experience more severe psychological manifestations of GD. More qualitative methods and self-defined cases of recovery should also be considered. Despite the limitations, this review provides valuable insights into GD recovery that can inform therapists, researchers, and policy makers.

A scoping review of the association between loot boxes, esports, skin betting, and token wagering with gambling and video gaming behaviors

Kim, H. S., Leslie, R. D., Stewart, S. H., King, D. L., Demetrovics, Z., Andrade, A. L. M., Choi, J.-S., Tavares, H., Almeida, B., & Hodgins, D. C. (2023). A scoping review of the association between loot boxes, esports, skin betting, and token wagering with gambling and video gaming behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2023.00013

 

This review synthesizes empirical research on gambling-like activities (GLAs), such as loot boxes, esports betting, and skin betting, with the aim to identify their associations with gambling and video gaming behaviours. The study, which reviewed 38 articles, found positive associations between participation in GLAs, gambling, and video gaming. Engagement in GLAs was also associated with mental distress and impulsivity. However, a need for more research in areas such as skin betting and token wagering, diversity in research methods, and representation of diverse populations was identified. The review also highlighted potential regulatory responses and the need for further research into the impacts of GLAs. The authors recommend more longitudinal and experimental studies with representative samples, as well as research focused on ethnically, culturally, and regionally diverse populations to better understand the relationship between GLAs, gambling, and gaming behaviours.

Psychometric Properties of Screening Instruments for Social Network Use Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Schlossarek, S., Schmidt, H., Bischof, A., Bischof, G., Brandt, D., Borgwardt, S., Browne, D. T., Christakis, D., Hurst-Della Pietra, P., Demetrovics, Z., & Rumpf, H.-J. (2023). Psychometric Properties of Screening Instruments for Social Network Use Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. JAMA Pediatrics, 177(4), 419. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.5741

 

This review explores various screening tools assessing Social Network Use Disorder (SNUD) in children and adolescents, with results suggesting that the Social Media Disorder Scale (SMDS) and Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale–Short Form (BSMAS-SF) are the most appropriate instruments for such assessment. It analysed the psychometric properties of 19 screening tools based on 29 empirical studies. Despite this, no single tool emerged as superior due to varying strengths and weaknesses among them. While the SMDS-SF and BSMAS-SF ranked highest in terms of quality, each scale had some shortcomings concerning their psychometric properties. This review acknowledges that the field is relatively new and encourages further research to refine and optimize existing screening tools, establish clear cut-off scores, and improve research in SNUD, especially considering the potential behavioural addiction implications of extensive social media use among young people.

The Predictive Role of Tolerance and Health Problems in Problem Gambling: A Cross-Sectional and Cross-Lagged Network Analyses

Horváth, Z., Paksi, B., Fernández-Aranda, F., Jiménez-Murcia, S., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). The Predictive Role of Tolerance and Health Problems in Problem Gambling: A Cross-Sectional and Cross-Lagged Network Analyses. Journal of Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-023-10191-5

 

Gambling Disorder (GD) is identified as an addictive behaviour, characterized by a set of symptoms, leading to significant impairment in personal, financial, and social spheres, as defined by DSM-5. The network approach to mental disorders views these disorders as systems of causally interrelated symptoms, providing insight into critical symptoms in the progression of disorders such as GD.
In this study, it was found that around 90% of gamblers did not experience problem gambling symptoms, with a slight uptick in symptom scores for females across different survey waves. However, the evidence for the replicability of cross-sectional symptom networks depicting the interconnectedness of symptoms was limited to changing importance of symptoms over time. On a longitudinal scale, “tolerance” and “health problems” from the initial survey wave were seen as predictive of the emergence of other symptoms in the subsequent wave. Yet, these findings were marked by low stability and inconsistent reproducibility, indicating a need for cautious interpretation. Thus, while cross-sectional networks provide some insights, their limitations necessitate exploring longitudinal symptom networks, though these too require careful interpretation due to external sensitivity and limited reproducibility.

Problem Gambling Among Adolescents in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Survey Study

Anyanwu, M. U., Demetrovics, Z., Griffiths, M. D., Horváth, Z., Czakó, A., Bajunirwe, F., & Tamwesigire, I. (2023). Problem Gambling Among Adolescents in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Survey Study. Journal of Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-023-10205-2

 

A study conducted in Uganda, where over 60% of the population is under 24, found a high prevalence of problem gambling among 905 surveyed school-aged adolescents. Despite rapid industry growth and over 1,000 gambling outlets existing since 2014, effective regulation is lacking, notably in enforcing laws prohibiting minors under 25 from gambling. The research revealed a 17.7% rate of problem gambling with male students, those non-religious or of another religion, those engaged in paid work or part-time jobs, living less than one kilometre from a gambling centre, those exposed to peer or parental gambling, and those with psychoactive substance use, risky sexual behaviour, or severe psychological distress being most at risk. While these results cannot be generalized to all Ugandan adolescents, they highlight the urgent need for regulatory measures to combat problem gambling and improve adolescent health and welfare.

The serial mediation effects of body image-coping strategies and avatar-identification in the relationship between self-concept clarity and gaming disorder: A pilot study

Servidio, R., Griffiths, M. D., Boca, S., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). The serial mediation effects of body image-coping strategies and avatar-identification in the relationship between self-concept clarity and gaming disorder: A pilot study. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 17, 100482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2023.100482

 

A study of 214 Italian online gamers found a negative relationship between self-concept clarity (SCC) and Gaming Disorder (GD), and a positive correlation between body coping strategies, avatar identification, and GD. Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the degree to which an individual’s sense of self is consistent, specific, and internally congruent. This plays a crucial role in digital interactions, particularly in online gaming where users may form strong connections with their digital avatars. When individuals have lower SCC or are dissatisfied with their body image, they might use idealized avatars as a coping mechanism, potentially increasing their risk of gaming disorder (GD), a behavioural addiction. The study discovered a significant negative correlation between SCC and GD, indicating that those with a less defined self-concept might use gaming to establish temporary identity, control, and stability. The study revealed that the relationship between SCC and GD was fully mediated by avoidance and by appearance-fixing and avatar identification. This suggests that those with lower SCC might modify their in-game avatars to improve their self-image, increasing their identification with their avatar and, in turn, their risk of GD. Despite participants not exhibiting high GD levels, these findings emphasize the crucial role of body image-coping strategies and avatar identification in the relationship between SCC and GD, providing a basis for future investigations.

Work Addiction and Stimulant Use: Latent Profile Analysis in a Representative Population Study

Kun, B., Fetahu, D., Mervó, B., Magi, A., Eisinger, A., Paksi, B., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). Work Addiction and Stimulant Use: Latent Profile Analysis in a Representative Population Study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-023-01076-0

 

This study examines the prevalence of psychostimulant use among individuals with work addiction in a sample of 3076 participants. Results suggest a higher rate of stimulant use, such as smoking, energy drinks, amphetamines, NPS, and cocaine, among work-addicted individuals compared to non-addicted peers. Furthermore, these individuals exhibited more psychopathological symptoms, pointing to a potential vulnerability to risky stimulant use. It’s theorized that these workers use stimulants to manage their stressful lifestyle and boost their self-esteem. The study calls for future research into motivations behind substance use in this group, including the role of “smart drugs” or “nootropics” and the impact of socio-demographic and work-related factors. Practical implications suggest that workplaces should address work addiction in mental health programs to aid employees in managing stress and avoiding task overload.

Metacognitive beliefs and anxiety symptoms could serve as mediators between fear of missing out and gaming disorder in adolescents

Zhang, M. X., Yu, S. M., Demetrovics, Z., & Wu, A. M. S. (2023). Metacognitive beliefs and anxiety symptoms could serve as mediators between fear of missing out and gaming disorder in adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 145, 107775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2023.107775

 

This study illuminated how fear of missing out (FoMO) may fuel internet gaming disorder (IGD) in adolescents by investigating the mediating roles of maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and anxiety. The research surveyed 283 Chinese high school students and found that FoMO had a direct positive relationship with IGD, while 3 specific metacognitive beliefs (negative beliefs about worry, confidence, and need for control) along with anxiety mediated such linkage. The results suggest that dysfunctional metacognitions and anxiety are risk-enhancing factors in the FoMO-IGD relationship among youth. Targeting negative metacognitive beliefs through therapy could help to treat IGD among adolescents struggling with high level of FoMO.

The emerging evidence on the association between symptoms of ADHD and gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Koncz, P., Demetrovics, Z., Takacs, Z. K., Griffiths, M. D., Nagy, T., & Király, O. (2023). The emerging evidence on the association between symptoms of ADHD and gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 106, 102343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2023.102343

 

While the co-existence of gaming disorder (GD) with other mental health problems has been widely reported, no quantitative synthesis has been performed before concerning the comorbidity of GD with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results of this meta-analysis published in Clinical Psychology Review indicate a moderate association between symptom severity of GD and ADHD: individuals with ADHD tend to have more severe gaming disorder symptoms, and those with gaming disorder have more severe ADHD symptoms. The findings suggest that screening and treatment for both conditions would be beneficial to those who are affected.

These results suggest that screening and treatment for ADHD among individuals with gaming disorder is necessary, and individuals with ADHD should be made aware of their higher susceptibility to gaming disorder.

Heterogeneity of gaming disorder: A clinically-based typology for developing personalized interventions

Ko, C.-H., Király, O., Demetrovics, Z., Griffiths, M. D., Kato, T. A., Tateno, M., & Yen, J.-Y. (2023). Heterogeneity of gaming disorder: A clinically-based typology for developing personalized interventions. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2023.00059

 

The present paper proposes a clinical typology of patients with gaming disorder (GD) based on clinical symptoms and comorbidity characteristics of 400 GD patients. The three common types of GD patients are: (1) impulsive adolescent boys with ADHD, (2) dysphoria patients with poor coping skills, and (3) socially isolated patients with anxiety. The study suggests that in order to fit individual needs, psychological and pharmacological treatments should be tailored to each type.

This study provides insight into the heterogeneity of gaming disorder patients, which can inform targeted and effective preventive and interventive measures.

Additional Research & Publications

The information capacity of adolescent alcohol consumption indicators along a continuum of severity: A cross-national comparison of sixteen Central and Eastern European countries

Horváth, Z., Qirjako, G., Pavlova, D., Taut, D., Vaičiūnas, T., Melkumova, M., Várnai, D., Vieno, A., Demetrovics, Z., Urbán, R, Németh, Á., (2021). The information capacity of adolescent alcohol consumption indicators along a continuum of severity: A cross-national comparison of sixteen Central and Eastern European countries. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, [Epub ahead of print]

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acer.14679

This study aimed to examine information capacity and measurement invariance of different alcohol consumption indicators in adolescents from 16 countries of the former Soviet (Eastern) Bloc in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Data was collected as part of the 2013/2014 wave of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The analysis measured the presence or absence of alcohol consumption in the last 30 days, lifetime drunkenness, weekly drinking frequency, and binge drinking.

Findings confirmed that adolescent alcohol consumption indicators are informative for different severity levels. In most countries, alcohol consumption in the last 30 days and lifetime drunkenness were indicative at lower severity levels, while binge drinking and weekly drinking frequency were informative at higher levels of alcohol use severity. Different indicators suggested the presence of diverging drinking cultures in the CEE countries.

Individual Differences in the Association Between Celebrity Worship and Subjective Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Gender and Age.

Zsila, Á., Orosz, G., McCutcheon, L. E., & Demetrovics, Z. (2021). Individual differences in the association between celebrity worship and subjective well-being: The moderating role of gender and age. Frontiers in Psychology12, 1749. [https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.651067/full]

 

This study aimed to explore the association between celebrity worship and well-being based on major demographics using the largest sample size for this topic. By exploring individual differences in this association some specific subgroups of fans have been identified that may need particular attention in mental health care. The sample consisted of Hungarian adults aged 18 to 79 years. They were categorized into two groups based upon whether their gender matched with the gender of their favourite celebrity (opposite-gender celebrity worship / same-gender celebrity worship). Women with higher levels of celebrity admiration were more likely to report lower self-esteem than men. Younger individuals with higher levels of celebrity worship experienced more frequent daytime sleepiness compared to older individuals. Gender-based selection of a favourite celebrity had no specific role in the association between celebrity worship and subjective well-being. These results indicate that there is a generally weak but consistent tendency that the stronger the worship of celebrities, the poorer the mental well-being.

Who complies with coronavirus disease 2019 precautions and who does not?

Urbán, R., Király, O. & Demetrovics, Zs. (2021). Who complies with coronavirus disease 2019 precautions and who does not? Current Opinion in Psychiatry (online ahead of print) [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34001700/]

 

This study aims to examine on the determinants of adherence behaviours (e.g., the use of a face mask and protective gloves, personal hygienic behaviours, keeping physical distance and avoiding social gatherings), as the most important tools to prevent SARS/COVID-19 virus transmission. Based on previous studies, there are specific populations that are particularly vulnerable to COVID, such as people with behavioural and mental disorders and recently diagnosed substance users. These populations might be at bigger risk, compared to people with chronic conditions, so a high degree of adherence to preventive behaviours is required from patients, caregivers, and the wider social environment.

There are factors, which determine the adherence to preventive behaviours. These can be  for example gender (males less likely to behave as recommended) and  age (younger people tend to feel safer, and consequently less likely to avoid social gatherings). Developing ways of engaging men and young people in adopting preventive behaviours and emphasizing the severity of the illness is important. Further research is needed to understand the vulnerable populations’ determinants of adherence behaviour.

Problematic use of the internet during the COVID-19 pandemic: Good practices and mental health recommendations.

Gjoneska, B., Potenza, M. N., Jones, J., Corazza, O., Hall, N., Sales, C. M. D., Grünblatt, E., Martinotti, G., Burkauskas, J., Werling, A. M., Walitza, S., Zohar, J., Menchón, J. M., Király, O., Chamberlain, S. R., Fineberg, N. A., & Demetrovics, Z. (2022). Problematic use of the internet during the COVID-19 pandemic: Good practices and mental health recommendations. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 112, 152279
[https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010440X21000572]

 

The present narrative review summarizes information on problematic use of internet (PUI) in relation to online gaming, gambling and pornography viewing, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors conclude by outlining research priorities and provide guidance, using evidence-based therapeutic approaches and preventative interventions on PUI for mental health professionals, patients and the general public.

Non-adherence to preventive behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic: findings from a community study.

Urbán, R., Paksi, B., Miklósi, Á., Saunders, J. B., Demetrovics, Z., (2021). Non-adherence to preventive behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic: findings from a community study. BMC Public Health, 21:1462 [IF: 3.295] [https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-021-11506-0]

 

This cross-sectional study had two aims: 1) to determine patterns of adherence and non-adherence to preventative behaviours recommended by public health authorities to slow down the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and 2) to understand the roles that distal factors may have (i.e., age, gender, health beliefs and socioeconomic status) in implementing preventative behaviours among the general population. This study identified 15 preventative behaviours (including wearing facemasks, using hand sanitiser, maintaining social distancing etc.). Results showed 18% of participants identified as non-adherent. More specifically, men throughout the age ranges and generally younger people were less likely to adhere to preventative measures.

Tracing 20 years of research on problematic use of the internet and social media: Theoretical models, assessment tools, and an agenda for future work.

Moretta, T., Buodo, G., Demetrovics, Z., Potenza, M. N., (2022). Tracing 20 years of research on problematic use of the internet and social media: Theoretical models, assessment tools, and an agenda for future work. Comprehensive Psychiatry 112, 152286.
[https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010440X2100064X]

 

This overview highlights the current conceptualization and assessments of problematic use of the internet (PUI) and problematic use of social media. In doing so, the authors critically discuss the multiple existing theoretical models, whose differences partially reflect varying definitions and classifications of PUI (e.g., as an addiction or as an impulse control disorder; as an addiction to the internet or as an addiction on the internet). These differences do not allow for standardised assessment procedures, thereby limiting comparability across studies. The authors conclude by addressing the current controversies and make suggestions for two main areas and goals for future research direction.

The psychological consequences of the ecological crisis: Three new questionnaires to assess eco-anxiety, eco-guilt, and ecological grief.

Ágoston, C., Urbán, R., Nagy, B., Csaba, B., Kőváry, Z., Kovács, K., Varga, A., Dúll, A., Mónus, F., Shaw, C. A., Demetrovics, Z. (2022). The psychological consequences of the ecological crisis: Three new questionnaires to assess eco-anxiety, eco-guilt, and ecological grief. Climate Risk Managament. 37:100441   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2022.100441

The human contribution to global warming is causing increased concern regarding the future catastrophic consequences. Climate change affects physical and mental health in several ways, including direct effects such as trauma from natural disasters and indirect effects such as reduced social well-being due to destruction of the physical environment, reactions such as eco-anxiety, eco-guilt and ecological grief are becoming increasingly common. The aim of this study was to develop questionnaires to assess these psychological consequences, and to examine their relationship with pro-environmental behaviour. The developed questionnaires proved to be suitable to assess of a wide range of negative emotional states related to climate change and the ecological crisis. The results showed that pro-environmental behaviours were positively associated with eco-guilt, ecological grief and the two factors of eco-anxiety.

Advances in problematic usage of the internet research – A narrative review by experts from the European network for problematic usage of the internet.

Fineberg, N. A., Menchón, J. M., Hall, N., Dell’Osso, B., Brand, M., Potenza, M. N., Chamberlain, S. R., Cirnigliaro, G., Lochner, C., Billieux, J., Demetrovics, Z., Rumpf, H. J., Müller, A., Castro-Calvo, J., Hollander, E., Burkauskas, J., Grünblatt, E., Walitza, S., Corazza, O., … Zohar, J. (2022). Advances in problematic usage of the internet research – A narrative review by experts from the European network for problematic usage of the internet. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 118, 152346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2022.152346

This narrative review examines the scientific progress made in the understanding of problematic internet use (PUI) and the critical knowledge gaps remaining to be filled. Advances have been made in achieving consensus on the clinical definition of various forms of problematic internet use  and refining assessment instruments, but important gaps remain, including a better understanding of the course and evolution of problematic internet use -related problems, reliable methods for early identification of individuals at risk, and effective preventative and therapeutic interventions. The authors conclude with recommendations for achievable research goals.

The associations of adolescent problematic internet use with parenting: A meta-analysis.

Lukavská, K., Hrabec, O., Lukavský, J., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O. (2022). The associations of adolescent problematic internet use with parenting: A meta-analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 135, 107423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107423

This meta-analysis examined the associations between adolescent problematic internet use (PIU) and general and media-specific parenting. The study found weak negative associations between PIU and general parenting, including warmth, control, and authoritative parenting, but no significant associations between PIU and media-specific parenting, such as active and restrictive mediation. The study suggests that media parenting has only weak association with PIU, and that restrictions should be used cautiously especially in the case of older adolescents, for whom they may even be counter-effective. . Further research on parenting and specific PIU activities is needed.

The serial mediation effects of body image-coping strategies and avatar-identification in the relationship between self-concept clarity and gaming disorder: A pilot study

Servidio, R., Griffiths, M. D., Boca, S., & Demetrovics, Z. (2023). The serial mediation effects of body image-coping strategies and avatar-identification in the relationship between self-concept clarity and gaming disorder: A pilot study. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 17, 100482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2023.100482

The article discusses the relationship between gaming disorder (GD) and various psychological factors, including self-concept clarity (SCC), avatar identification, and body-image coping strategies. The study involved 214 Italian online gamers, and the results showed that poorer SCC and higher levels of avatar identification and body-image coping strategies were associated with a greater risk of GD. Specifically, avoidance fully mediated the relationship between SCC and GD, while appearance-fixing and avatar-identification were full serial mediators between SCC and GD. The findings suggest potential pathways for understanding the underlying determinants of GD and designing intervention programs to help reduce the risk of GD among players.

Doctoral Opportunities with CERG

The Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming (CERG) at the University of Gibraltar currently has three PhD students and is open for new candidates. Successful applicants may be interested in the aetiology of problematic gambling/gambling disorder and understanding the mechanisms of gambling-related risks and harm.
 What we offer:
  • Applicants may apply as self-funded individuals or for a PhD scholarship funded by the CERG. Scholarships would cover tuition costs, a monthly living stipend and travel assistance.
  • A friendly international interdisciplinary team
  • A modern and dynamic university
If you are interested in this programme or if you have any questions, don’t hesitate to get in touch with Dr Zsolt Demetrovics, Chair of the Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, at cerg@unigib.edu.gi.

CERG PhD Scholarship

The CERG is delighted to be able to offer PhD scholarships to selected full-time PhD students who plan to focus their research studies on problematic gambling/gambling disorders. 

Submissions for PhD scholarships for the academic year 2024-2025 are now open.  

If you have any questions relating to the programme, funding possibilities and how to apply, please get in touch with Dr Zsolt Demetrovics, Chair of the Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, at cerg@unigib.edu.gi

Important dates:

Application deadline: 30th April 2024

Expression of interest in our PhD programme must be done before 15th April 2024

FIND OUT MORE

International Scientific Advisory Board

The International Scientific Advisory Board is responsible for supporting and guiding the CERG’s work. The Board includes leading scientists in gambling research, addiction psychology and psychiatry, and neuroscience from across the world.
  • Alex Baldacchino (University of St Andrews, United Kingdom)
  • Joel Billieux (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Matthias Brand (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky (McGill University, Canada)
  • Mark Griffiths (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • David Hodgins (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Susana Jiménez-Murcia (University of Barcelona, Spain)
  • Daniel King (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Frances R. Levin (Columbia University, USA)
  • Marc Potenza (Yale University, USA)
  • John Saunders (University of Sydney, Australia)
  • Sherry Stewart (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Wim van den Brink (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)

Upcoming Events

Dates Lecture Speaker Book Your Place

Past Events

Public Lecture Series

Dates Lecture Speaker Link to Event
24 May 2023 Inside the Addicted Brain: The Fascinating Neurobiology behind Gambling Disorder PhD Student Ronald Ngetich Find Out More
12 April 2023 Internet- and mobile-based interventions for the reduction of gambling and co-occurring mental disorders Prof Michael Patrick Schaub Find Out More
9 February 2023 Understanding problem gambling through network analysis Dr Zsolt Horvath Find Out More
31 January 2023 Interventions for safer online gambling: what is out there and what is effective? Dr Shu (Mogu) Yu Find Out More
15 June 2022 Gamblification: The growing use of gambling as a means of driving consumer engagement. Dr Joseph Macey Find Out More
25 May 2022 Gender differences in addictive behaviours: focusing on girls and women in gambling Dr Zsuzsa Kaló Find Out More
13 May 2022 EASAR Public Lectures On Addictions Prof Wim van den Brink, Dr Udo Nabitz, Prof Gabriele Fischer, Prof Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Dr Csaba Barta Find Out More
12 May 2022 EASAR Public Lectures On Problem Gambling Dr Susana Jiménez-Murcia,Dr Natália Kocsel,Joakim Hellumbråten Kristensen Find Out More
27 April 2022 Gambling Fallacies: The role of false beliefs in the development and maintenance of problematic gambling Dr Carrie Shaw Find Out More
6th April 2022 Why do people play? The motivational background of gambling and gaming Prof Zsolt Demetrovics Find Out More
12 November 2021 Responsible gambling: Norway – A Special Example of Responsible Gambling Prof Ståle Pallesen Find Out More
25 October 2021 ADHD and comorbid substance use, gambling and gaming disorders: An overview Prof Wim van den Brink Find Out More
27 September 2021 Habits Die Hard: From learning to addiction Prof Dezso Nemeth Find Out More

International Webinar Series

Dates Lecture Speaker Link to Event
13 November 2023 International Webinar Series: Gambling Policies and Regulations: Some examples 2 Prof Susana Jimenez-Murcia , Prof Belle Gavriel-Fried and Ynze Remmers Find Out More
18 September 2023 International Webinar Series on Gambling: Treatment for gambling disorder and other behavioural addictions Prof Hodgins David, Prof Marc Potenza and Prof Jon E. Grant Find Out More
7 June 2023 International Webinar Series on Gambling: Evidence and systems of care for gambling disorder and other behavioural addictions Dr John B, Dr Sophia Achab, Dr Wei Hao Find Out More
27 February 2023 International Webinar Series on Gambling: Responsible gambling: Research on interventions Dr Zsolt Demetrovics, Dr Marc Potenza, Dr Mark Griffiths, Dr Sally Gainsbury, Dr Simone Rodda Find Out More
27 June 2022 International Webinar Series: Safer gambling interventions and their effectiveness Dr Darren R. Christensen , Marlene D. Warner, Dr Debi LaPlante Find Out More
25 April 2022 International Webinar: Gambling policies and regulations Prof Anise M.S. Wu ,Prof Ståle Pallesen,Prof Lia Nower Find Out More

Other Events

Dates Lecture Speaker Link to Event
14 November 2023 Gibraltar Safer Gambling Week 2023: Conference on safeguarding gambling industry employees against problem gambling International leaders in the field Find Out More
7 March 2023 CERG Quarterly Forum PhD Student Judith Glynn Find Out More
20 October 2022 Safer Gambling Week 2022 | Academia and industry collaboration in the responsible gambling field Prof Zsolt Demetrovics Find Out More
17 October 2022 Safer Gambling Week 2022 | Responsible gambling: Link between industry and academia Prof Zsolt Demetrovics Find Out More

News Articles

Date Topic Media Outlet Link to Article
18/01/2023 Publication Chronicle Find out more
16/05/2022 EASAR GBC Find out more
16/05/2022 EASAR Chronicle Find out more
09/05/2022 EASAR GBC Find out more
10/03/2022 CERG opening GBC Find out more
21/10/2021 CERG Chronicle Find out more

Funding and Conflict of Interest Statement

The University of Gibraltar receives funding from the Gibraltar GamblingCare Foundation, which is an independent, not-for-profit organisation and registered charity (no.320). This funding aims to support the launching and development of the Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming at the University as well as to contribute to the efforts of the University to conduct scientific research on problematic gambling. The Foundation, however, fully respects the academic independence of the University of Gibraltar and its specific research goals.  It fully recognises it is for the University solely to determine the research study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, the content or writing of manuscripts, and any other way the research results are communicated.

Education

  • Certificate of Completion

    Remote Gambling Online Course

    If you are working at any level in the gaming industry, this course will increase your understanding of responsible gaming and it’s implications for your organisation.[...]

    4-5 (approx) Hours

    No Placement option

    Online

    View Course
  • Micro-Credential Certificate or CPD Certificate

    Compliance Leadership

    This Micro-Credential is designed for compliance leadership, providing in-depth theoretical insights into compliance, its societal and economic significance, various models and approaches, and the core policy, legal, and regulatory elements. It offers a global perspective on gambling compliance, delving into key jurisdictions such as Gibraltar, the UK, and a selected EU member state, with contributions from local experts.[...]

    12 Weeks

    No Placement option

    View Course

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